Значение слова LAMB в Литературной энциклопедии

Что такое LAMB

1) LADY CAROLINE (1785-1828).-Novelist, _dau._ of 3rd Earl of Bessborough, _m._ the Hon. William Lamb, afterwards Lord Melbourne and Prime Minister. She wrote three novels, which, though of little literary value, attracted much attention. The first of these, _Glenarvon_ (1816), contained a caricature portrait of Lord Byron, with whom the authoress had shortly before been infatuated. It was followed by _Graham Hamilton_ (1822), and _Ada Reis_ (1823). Happening to meet the hearse conveying the remains of Byron, she became unconscious, and fell into mental alienation, from which she never recovered. 2) LAMB, CHARLES (1775-1834).-Essayist and poet, was _b._ in London, his _f._ being confidential clerk to Samuel Salt, one of the benchers of the Inner Temple. After being at a school in the neighbourhood, he was sent by the influence of Mr. Salt to Christ's Hospital, where he remained from 1782-89, and where he formed a lifelong friendship with Coleridge. He was then for a year or two in the South Sea House, where his elder brother John was a clerk. Thence he was in 1792 transferred to the India House, where he remained until 1825, when he retired with a pension of two-thirds of his salary. Mr. Salt _d._ in 1792, and the family, consisting of the _f._, mother, Charles, and his sister Mary, ten years his senior, lived together in somewhat straitened circumstances. John, comparatively well off, leaving them pretty much to their own resources. In 1796 the tragedy of L.'s life occurred. His sister Mary, in a sudden fit of insanity, killed her mother with a table-knife. Thenceforward, giving up a marriage to which he was looking forward, he devoted himself to the care of his unfortunate sister, who became, except when separated from him by periods of aberration, his lifelong and affectionate companion-the "Cousin Bridget" of his essays. His first literary appearance was a contribution of four sonnets to Coleridge's _Poems on Various Subjects_ (1796). Two years later he _pub._, along with his friend Charles Lloyd, _Blank Verse_, the little vol. including _The Old Familiar Faces_, and others of his best known poems, and his romance, _Rosamund Gray_, followed in the same year. He then turned to the drama, and produced _John Woodvil_, a tragedy, and _Mr. H._, a farce, both failures, for although the first had some echo of the Elizabethan music, it had no dramatic force. Meantime the brother and sister were leading a life clouded by poverty and by the anxieties arising from the condition of the latter, and they moved about from one lodging to another. L.'s literary ventures so far had not yielded much either in money or fame, but in 1807 he was asked by W. Godwin (_q.v._) to assist him in his "Juvenile Library," and to this he, with the assistance of his sister, contributed the now famous _Tales from Shakespeare_, Charles doing the tragedies and Mary the comedies. In 1808 they wrote, again for children, _The Adventures of Ulysses_, a version of the _Odyssey, Mrs. Leicester's School_, and _Poetry for Children_ (1809). About the same time he was commissioned by Longman to ed. selections from the Elizabethan dramatists. To the selections were added criticisms, which at once brought him the reputation of being one of the most subtle and penetrating critics who had ever touched the subject. Three years later his extraordinary power in this department was farther exhibited in a series of papers on Hogarth and Shakespeare, which appeared in Hunt's _Reflector_. In 1818 his scattered contributions in prose and verse were _coll._ as _The Works of Charles Lamb_, and the favour with which they were received led to his being asked to contribute to the _London Magazine_ the essays on which his fame chiefly rests. The name "Elia" under which they were written was that of a fellow-clerk in the India House. They appeared from 1820-25. The first series was printed in 1823, the second, _The Last Essays of Elia_, in 1833. In 1823 the L.'s had left London and taken a cottage at Islington, and had practically adopted Emma Isola, a young orphan, whose presence brightened their lives until her marriage in 1833 to E. Moxon, the publisher. In 1825 L. retired, and lived at Enfield and Edmonton. But his health was impaired, and his sister's attacks of mental alienation were ever becoming more frequent and of longer duration. During one of his walks he fell, slightly hurting his face. The wound developed into erysipelas, and he _d._ on December 29, 1834. His sister survived until 1847. The place of L. as an essayist and critic is the very highest. His only rival in the former department is Addison, but in depth and tenderness of feeling, and richness of fancy L. is the superior. In the realms of criticism there can be no comparison between the two. L. is here at once profound and subtle, and his work led as much as any other influence to the revival of interest in and appreciation of our older poetry. His own writings, which are self-revealing in a quite unusual and always charming way, and the recollections of his friends, have made the personality of Lamb more familiar to us than any other in our literature, except that of Johnson. His weaknesses, his oddities, his charm, his humour, his stutter, are all as familiar to his readers as if they had known him, and the tragedy and noble self-sacrifice of his life add a feeling of reverence for a character we already love. Life and Letters and Final Memorials by Talfourd, also Memoir by B.W. Proctor and A. Ainger prefixed to ed. of _Works_ (1883-88). Life, Works, and Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb, in 9 vols., E.V. Lucas, and 12 vols. ed. W. Macdonald.

Литературная энциклопедия.