Значение слова DEFOE в Литературной энциклопедии

Что такое DEFOE

DANIEL (1661?-1731).-Journalist and novelist, _s._ of a butcher in St. Giles, where he was _b._ His _f._ being a Dissenter, he was _ed._ at a Dissenting coll. at Newington with the view of becoming a Presbyterian minister. He joined the army of Monmouth, and on its defeat was fortunate enough to escape punishment. In 1688 he joined William III. Before settling down to his career as a political writer, D. had been engaged in various enterprises as a hosier, a merchant-adventurer to Spain and Portugal, and a brickmaker, all of which proved so unsuccessful that he had to fly from his creditors. Having become known to the government as an effective writer, and employed by them, he was appointed Accountant in the Glass-Duty Office, 1659-1699. Among his more important political writings are an _Essay on Projects_ (1698), and _The True-born Englishman_ (1701), which had a remarkable success. In 1702 appeared _The Shortest Way with the Dissenters_, written in a strain of grave irony which was, unfortunately for the author, misunderstood, and led to his being fined, imprisoned, and put in the pillory, which suggested his _Hymns to the Pillory_ (1704). Notwithstanding the disfavour with the government which these disasters implied, D.'s knowledge of commercial affairs and practical ability were recognised by his being sent in 1706 to Scotland to aid in the Union negotiations. In the same year _Jure Divino_, a satire, followed by a _History of the Union_ (1709), and _The Wars of Charles XII._ (1715). Further misunderstandings and disappointments in connection with political matters led to his giving up this line of activity, and, fortunately for posterity, taking to fiction. The first and greatest of his novels, _Robinson Crusoe_, appeared in 1719, and its sequel (of greatly inferior interest) in 1720. These were followed by _Captain Singleton_ (1720), _Moll Flanders_, _Colonel Jacque_, and _Journal of the Plague Year_ (1722), _Memoirs of a Cavalier_ (1724), _A New Voyage Round the World_ (1725), and _Captain Carlton_ (1728). Among his miscellaneous works are _Political History of the Devil_ (1726), _System of Magic_ (1727), _The Complete English Tradesman_ (1727), and _The Review_, a paper which he ed. In all he _pub._, including pamphlets, etc., about 250 works. All D.'s writings are distinguished by a clear, nervous style, and his works of fiction by a minute verisimilitude and naturalness of incident which has never been equalled except perhaps by Swift, whose genius his, in some other respects, resembled. The only description of his personal appearance is given in an advertisement intended to lead to his apprehension, and runs, "A middle-sized, spare man about forty years old, of a brown complexion, and dark brown-coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hooked nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth." His mind was a peculiar amalgam of imagination and matter-of-fact, seeing strongly and clearly what he did see, but little conscious, apparently, of what lay outside his purview. _Lives_ by Chalmers (1786), H. Morley (1889), T. Wright (1894), and others; shorter works by Lamb, Hazlitt, L. Stephens, and Prof. Minto, Bohn's _British Classics_, etc.

Литературная энциклопедия.