Значение слова NEWTON в Литературной энциклопедии


1) SIR ISAAC (1642-1727).-Natural philosopher, _b._ at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, the _s._ of a small landed proprietor, and _ed._ at the Grammar School of Grantham and at Trinity Coll., Camb. By propounding the binomial theorem, the differential calculus, and the integral calculus, he began in 1665 the wonderful series of discoveries in pure mathematics, optics, and physics, which place him in the first rank of the philosophers of all time. He was elected Lucasian Prof. of Mathematics at Camb. in 1669, and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672, over which body he presided for 25 years from 1703. In the same year his new theory of flight was _pub._ in a paper before the society. His epoch-making discovery of the law of universal gravitation was not promulgated until 1687, though the first glimpse of it had come to him so early as 1665. The discovery of fluxions, which he claimed, was contested by Leibnitz, and led to a long and bitter controversy between the two philosophers. He twice sat in Parliament for his Univ., and was Master of the Mint from 1699, in which capacity he presented reports on the coinage. He was knighted in 1705, and _d._ at Kensington in 1727. For a short time, after an unfortunate accident by which a number of invaluable manuscripts were burned, he suffered from some mental aberration. His writings fall into two classes, scientific and theological. In the first are included his famous treatises, _Light and Colours_ (1672), _Optics_ (1704), the _Principia_ (1687), in Latin, its full title being _Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica_. In the second are his _Observations upon the Prophecies of Holy Writ_ and _An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture_. In character N. was remarkable for simplicity, humility, and gentleness, with a great distaste for controversy, in which, nevertheless, he was repeatedly involved. _Life_ by Sir D. Brewster, second ed., 1855, etc. 2) NEWTON, JOHN (1725-1807).-Divine and hymn-writer, _s._ of a shipmaster, was _b._ in London, and for many years led a varied and adventurous life at sea, part of the time on board a man-of-war and part as captain of a slaver. In 1748 he came under strong religious convictions, and after acting as a tide-waiter at Liverpool for a few years, he applied for orders in 1758, and was ordained curate of Olney in 1764. Here he became the intimate and sympathetic friend of Cowper, in conjunction with whom he produced the _Olney Hymns_. In 1779 he was translated to the Rectory of St. Mary, Woolnoth, London, where he had great popularity and influence, and wrote many religious works, including _Cardiphonia_, and _Remarkable Passages in his Own Life_. He lives, however, in his hymns, among which are some of the best and most widely known in the language, such as _In evil long I took delight_, _Glorious things of Thee are Spoken_, _How Sweet the Name of Jesus sounds_, and many others. In his latter years N. was blind.

Литературная энциклопедия.