Значение слова TAYLOR в Литературной энциклопедии
1) BAYARD (1825-1878).-Poet, _b._ in Pennsylvania of Quaker descent, began to write by the time he was 12. Apprenticed to a printer, he found the work uncongenial and, purchasing his indentures, went to Europe on a walking tour, and thereafter he was a constant and enterprising traveller. After his return from Europe he ed. a paper, got on the staff of the _New York Tribune_, and _pub._ several books of travel and poetry, among which are _Views Afoot_ (1846), an account of his travels in Europe, and _El Dorado_ (1850), which described the Californian gold-fields. After some experience and some disappointments in the diplomatic sphere, he settled down to novel-writing, his first venture in which, _Hannah Thurston_ (1863), was very successful, and was followed by _John Godfrey's Fortunes_ (1864), partly autobiographical, and _The Story of Kenneth_ (1866). His poetic works include _Poems of the Orient_ (1854), _Poet's Journal_ (1862), _Masque of the Gods_ (1872), _Lars_ (1873), _The Prophet_ (1874), a tragedy, _Prince Deucalion_, and _Home Pastorals_ (1875). In 1878 he was appointed to the German Embassy, and _d._ in Berlin in the following year. His translation of Goethe's _Faust_ is perhaps his best work. He was a man of untiring energy and great ability and versatility, but tried too many avenues to fame to advance very far in any of them. 2) TAYLOR, SIR HENRY (1800-1886).-Dramatist, _s._ of a gentleman farmer in the county of Durham. After being at sea for some months and in the Naval Stores Department, he became a clerk in the Colonial Office, and remained there for 48 years, during which he exercised considerable influence on the colonial policy of the Empire. In 1872 he was made K.C.M.G. He wrote four tragedies-_Isaac Comnenus_ (1827), _Philip van Artevelde_ (1834), _Edwin the Fair_ (1842), and _St. Clement's Eve_ (1862); also a romantic comedy, _The Virgin Widow_, which he renamed _A Sicilian Summer_, _The Eve of the Conquest and other Poems_ (1847). In prose he _pub._ _The Statesman_ (1836), _Notes from Life_ (1847), _Notes from Books_ (1849), and an _Autobiography_. Of all these _Philip van Artevelde_ was perhaps the most successful. T. was a man of great ability and distinction, but his dramas, with many of the qualities of good poetry, lack the final touch of genius. 3) TAYLOR, ISAAC (1787-1865).-Philosophical and historical writer, artist, and inventor, was the most eminent member of a family known as the Taylors of Ongar, which has shown a remarkable persistence of ability in various departments, but especially in art and literature. His grandfather and _f._, who bore the same name, were both eminent engravers, and the latter was the author of various books for children. T. was brought up to the hereditary art of engraving, in which he displayed pre-eminent skill, his work gaining the admiration of D.G. Rossetti. He decided, however, to devote himself to literature, and for 40 years continued to produce works of originality and value, including _Elements of Thought_ (1823), _Natural History of Enthusiasm_ (1829), _Spiritual Despotism_ (1831), _Ancient Christianity_ (1839), _Restoration of Belief_ (1855), _The Physical Theory of Another Life_, _History of Transmission of Ancient Books_, and _Home Education_, besides numerous contributions to reviews and other periodicals. Besides his literary and artistic accomplishments T. was an important inventor, two of his inventions having done much to develop the manufacture of calico. Two of his sisters had considerable literary reputation. ANN T., afterwards MRS. GILBERT (1782-1866), and JANE (1783-1824) were, like their brother, taught the art of engraving. In 1804-5 they jointly wrote _Original Poems for Infant Minds_, followed by _Rhymes for the Nursery_ and _Hymns for Infant Minds_. Among those are the little poems, "My Mother" and "Twinkle, twinkle, little Star," known to all well-conditioned children. Jane was also the author of _Display_, a tale (1815), and other works, including several hymns, of which the best known is "Lord, I would own Thy tender Care." The hereditary talents of the family were represented in the next generation by CANON ISAAC T. (1829-1901), the _s._ of Isaac last mentioned, who, in addition to _The Liturgy and the Dissenters_, _pub._ works in philology and archaeology, including _Words and Places_ and _Etruscan Researches_; and by JOSIAH GILBERT, _s._ of Ann T., an accomplished artist, and author of _The Dolomite Mountains_, _Cadore, or Titian's Country_, and ed. of the _Autobiography_ of his mother. 4) TAYLOR, JEREMY (1613-1667).-Divine, was _b._ at Camb. His _f._, though of gentle descent, followed the trade of a barber, and Jeremy entered Caius Coll. as a sizar. After his graduation in 1634 he was asked to preach in London, where his eloquence attracted the attention of Laud, who sent him to Oxf., caused him to be elected a Fellow of All Souls Coll., and made him his chaplain. He also became a chaplain to the King, and soon attaining a great reputation as a preacher, was presented to the living of Uppingham. In 1639 he _m._ his first wife, and in 1643 he was made Rector of Overstone. On the outbreak of the Civil War T. sided with the King, and was present, probably as a chaplain, at the battle fought in 1645 near Cardigan Castle, when he was taken prisoner. He was soon released, but the Royalist cause being practically lost, he decided to remain in Wales, and with two friends started a school at Newtonhall, Caermarthenshire, which had some success. T. also found a friend in Lord Carbery, whose chaplain he became. During the period of 13 years from 1647-60, which were passed in seeming obscurity, he laid the foundations and raised the structure of his splendid literary fame. The _Liberty of Prophesying_ (that is, of preaching), one of the greatest pleas for toleration in the language, was _pub._ in 1647, _The Life of Christ_ in 1649, _Holy Living_ in 1650, and _Holy Dying_ in 1651. These were followed by various series of sermons, and by _The Golden Grove_ (1655), a manual of devotion which received its title from the name of the seat of his friend Lord Carbery. For some remarks against the existing authorities T. suffered a short imprisonment, and some controversial tracts on _Original Sin_, _Unum Necessarium_ (the one thing needful), and _The Doctrine and Practice of Repentance_ involved him in a controversy of some warmth in which he was attacked by both High Churchmen and Calvinists. While in Wales T. had entered into a second marriage with a lady of some property which, however, was seriously encroached upon by the exactions of the Parliamentarians. In 1657 he ministered privately to an Episcopalian congregation in London, and in 1658 accompanied Lord Conway to Ireland, and served a cure at Lisburn. Two years later he _pub._ _Ductor Dubitantium, or the Rule of Conscience in all her General Measures_, a learned and subtle piece of casuistry which he dedicated to Charles II. The Restoration brought recognition of T.'s unswerving devotion to the Royalist cause; he was made Bishop of Down and Connor, and to this was added the administration of the see of Dromore. In his new position, though, as might have been expected, he showed zeal, diligence, and benevolence, he was not happy. He did not, probably could not, entirely practise his own views of absolute toleration, and found himself in conflict with the Presbyterians, some of whose ministers he had extruded from benefices which they had held, and he longed to escape to a more private and peaceful position. He _d._ at Lisburn of a fever caught while ministering to a parishioner. T. is one of the great classical writers of England. Learned, original, and impassioned, he had an enthusiasm for religion and charity, and his writings glow with an almost unequalled wealth of illustration and imagery, subtle argument, and fullness of thought. With a character of stainless purity and benevolence, and gracious and gentle manners, he was universally beloved by all who came under the spell of his presence. 5) TAYLOR, JOHN (1580-1653).-Known as the "Water Poet," _b._ at Gloucester of humble parentage, was apprenticed to a London waterman, and pressed for the navy. Thereafter he returned to London and resumed his occupation on the Thames, afterwards keeping inns first at Oxf., then in London. He had a talent for writing rollicking verses, enjoyed the acquaintance of Ben Jonson, and other famous men, superintended the water pageant at the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth 1613, and composed the "triumphs" at the Lord Mayor's shows. He made a journey on foot from London as far as to Braemar, of which he wrote an account, _The Pennyless Pilgrimage ... of John Taylor_, _the King's Majesty's Water Poet_ (1618). He visited the Queen of Bohemia at Prague in 1620, and made other journeys, each of which was commemorated in a book. His writings are of little literary value, but have considerable historical and antiquarian interest. 6) TAYLOR, PHILIP MEADOWS (1808-1876).-Novelist, _b._ at Liverpool, _s._ of a merchant there. When still a boy went out to a mercantile situation in Calcutta, but in 1826 got a commission in the army of the Nizam of Hyderabad. From this he rose to a high civil position in the service of the Nizam, and entirely reorganised his government. He wrote several striking novels dealing with Indian life, including _Confessions of a Thug_ (1639), _Tara_, and _A Noble Queen_. He left an autobiography, _The Story of my Life_, ed. by his _dau._ 7) TAYLOR, THOMAS (1758-1835).-Translator, _b._ in London and _ed._ at St. Paul's School, devoted himself to the study of the classics and of mathematics. After being a bank clerk he was appointed Assistant Secretary to the Society for the encouragement of Arts, etc., in which capacity he made many influential friends, who furnished the means for publishing his various translations, which include works of Plato, Aristotle, Proclus, Porphyry, Apuleius, etc. His aim indeed was the translation of all the untranslated writings of the ancient Greek philosophers. 8) TAYLOR, TOM (1817-1880).-Dramatist, _b._ at Sunderland, _ed._ at Glasgow and Camb., and was Prof. of English Literature in London Univ. from 1845-47. In 1846 he was called to the Bar, and from 1854-71 he was Sec. to the Local Government Board. He was the author of about 100 dramatic pieces, original and adapted, including _Still Waters run Deep_, _The Overland Route_, and _Joan of Arc_. He was likewise a large contributor to _Punch_, of which he was ed. 1874-80, and he ed. the autobiographies of Haydon and Leslie, the painters, and wrote _Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds_. 9) TAYLOR, WILLIAM (1765-1836).-Translator, etc., _s._ of a merchant, travelled on the Continent, learned German, and became an enthusiastic student of German literature, which he was one of the first to introduce to his fellow-countrymen. His articles on the subject were _coll._ and _pub._ as _Historic Survey of German Poetry_ (1828-30). He translated Buerger's _Lenore_, Lessing's _Nathan_, and Goethe's _Iphigenia_. He also wrote _Tales of Yore_ (1810) and _English Synonyms Described_ (1813).
Литературная энциклопедия. 2012